Jital: coin of medieval Northern India (king Prithviraj III)


Jital, 1179-1192: Chauhans of Delhi and Ajmer (India)

Jital, 1179-1192: Chauhans of Delhi and Ajmer (India)

Ruler: Prithviraj III (Prithviraj Chauhan) — king from the Indian Chauhan dynasty that ruled parts of the present-day Rajasthan in and neighbouring areas in northern India between the 6th and 12th centuries (the territory ruled by them was known as Sapadalaksha with capital at Ajmer).

Stylized images of a bull to the left (obverse) and a horseman with a spear to the right (reverse).

Around the bull and the rider there is a legend in Nagari (Devanagari) script of approximate content: "Sri Prithviraja Deva" /the name of the ruler/ and "Asavari Sri Samanta Deva" /the title of ruler/.

Visible signs of using the coin as an ornament or amulet (traces of metal soldering).

Prithviraj Chauhan is a Hindu ruler on the throne of Delhi, after whose death in 1192 Delhi came under the control of Muslim rulers.

  • Silver: 15 mm - 3.38 g
  • Reference price: 11$

COIN JITAL — WHERE & WHEN (coins catalog: by names & emitents)
  1. INDIA medieval — Empire of Vijayanagara, Delhi Sultanate, Sultanate of Sindh, Mamluk dynasty, Emirate of Multan, Pala Empire, Chauhan Dynasty, Kabul Shahi Dynasties, Kangra State, Tomara dynasty... (8th-16th centuries): jital = 1/60 tanka...
  2. ISLAMIC STATES — Ghaznavid dynasty, Ghurid dynasty, Khwarezmian Empire, Saffarid dynasty... (10th-13th centuries): jital
  3. MONGOL STATES — Khanate of Chagatai, Mongol Empire... (13th century): jital = 1/50 tanka...

About the name of the coin jital: the name of the jital coin, according to one of the many unconfirmed versions, comes from the expression "heavy / tangible coin" in the local language.
There is also such a version (similar to the first assumption — i.e. in fact, not supported by facts): the name "jital" comes from the Middle Mongol "cidal" — "ability, gift, possibility, affluence, prosperity".
Both of the above statements, unfortunately, may be far from the truth — this coin is too old to verify the etymology of the term "jital"...
In general, jital is an ancient coin of South Asia, which contained characteristic stylized images of a bull and a rider (the most famous and common subject for this type of coin). According to most sources, jitals were used mostly in the territory of modern Afghanistan, Pakistan and northern India. There is evidence that the first jitals appeared at the end of the 8th century (some sources mention the 7th century) in eastern Afghanistan. One of the emission centers is the city of Kabul. Originally, it was a high-quality silver coin weighing up to 4 grams. It was distinguished by the purity of the metal and the skillful execution of images of a lying bull and a rider with a spear. The Jitals spread widely to the southeast of Kabul. The rulers of neighboring lands began to make them. Central releases were distinguished by higher quality, regional ones by low quality. Over time, the coin degraded: first, billon coins began to appear, and later — copper jitals. The main plot remained unchanged, but also underwent significant negative changes. Thus, the image of a bull and a rider on some later specimens became almost impossible to identify. As a result, the coins contained an obscure ornament.