Polushka: coin of Russian Empire (14th-19th centuries)

POLUSHKA: COIN OF RUSSIAN EMPIRE

Polushka (полушка), 1735: Russian Empire

Polushka (полушка), 1735: Russian Empire

Ruler: Anna of Russia (Anna Ioannovna) — the Empress of Russia from 1730 to 1740.

ПОЛУШКА - 1735: polushka, 1735.

Denomination of the coin and date of issue in the cartouche.

Coat of arms of the Russian Empire (the two-headed eagle).

Plashilnaya Mill, Yauza river (Moscow, Russia).

Mintage: 21.040.000.

  • Copper: 19.5 mm - 3.69 g
  • Reference price: 3$

COIN POLUSHKA — WHERE & WHEN (coins catalog: by names & emitents)
  1. RUSSIAN EMPIRE (1701-1866): polushka = 1/2 denga = 1/4 kopeck (The Russian Empire was created by Peter I in 1721 on the basis of Tsardom of Muscovy /Tsardom of Russia/, which has existed since 1547)
  2. TSARDOM OF RUSSIA (16th-17th centuries): polushka = 1/2 denga
  3. PRINCIPALITIES IN THE LANDS OF MODERN RUSSIA (Moscow, Novgorod, Pskov, Rostov…; 14th-16th centuries): polushka (poludenga) = 1/2 denga
  4. RUSSIAN REGIONAL ISSUES (Siberian and Crimean coins, 18th century): polushka

There is a simple explanation for the origin of the name of the polushka coin (russian «полушка»; from «пол-, половина» = a half), which was a QUARTER of a kopeck (not a half). It turns out that the name reflects the value is not relative to the kopeck, but relative to the denga (1/2 kopeck). Prior to Peter I, the kopeck was not considered the main change. More common was the denga — «moskovka» (Moscow denga, which was also called «saber denga» — depicted a rider with a saber). Polushka arose as half of this denga. At the same time, there was a silver coin «novgorodka» twice as heavy as the «moskovka» /Novgorod denga — «spear denga» or, later, «kopeck» (russian «копейка»); a graphic image of a rider with a spear (russian «копьё»)/. Accordingly, it already contained four polushkas. 
In addition to the, in fact, Russian polushkas (the Russian Empire, the Russian lands before the proclamation of the Empire in 1721) in modern numismatics there are also regional polushkas from the end of the 18th century: Siberian and Crimean. These coins belong, respectively, to the sections (coin types) «Siberian coins» (Russian coins for Siberia) and «Kopeck | Akçe» (coins of the Crimean Khanate under the protectorate of the Russian Empire).